More than one-third of Americans say they are affected by knee pain.

The causes vary — whether it’s injury, excess weight on the joint, arthritis or other medical condition  — but knee pain affects people of all ages. Minor knee pain often responds to physical therapy, but your knee might require surgical repair.

Runner's Knee

Pain in the front of the knee may be caused by Patella Femoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS) — also called chondromalacia, or runner's knee — a condition characterized by a rough or soft spot on the kneecap's cartilage surface.

It's caused by over-activity, excess weight and injury.
The condition causes pain, buckling, stiffness and a feeling of catching or grinding. Going up and down stairs is difficult, and sitting with your knees bent or squatting becomes uncomfortable.

Though uncomfortable, PFPS is usually a short-term problem and generally does not lead to arthritis or other joint conditions. Treatment is usually nonsurgical, though in rare cases surgery may be recommended.


Osteoarthritis affects joints, eventually wearing down surrounding cartilage. Worst case: It’s bone rubbing against bone.

The resultant pain can become so intense that sleep becomes difficult. When joint pain and reduced mobility start to affect your daily life, it might be time for a partial or total knee replacement.

Nonsurgical Treatment

Nonsurgical options to treat knee pain and limited motion may include anti-inflammatory medications to decrease swelling stiffness and pain. Other treatments may include cortisone injections, ice, rest or physical therapy. A brace may be recommended to sabilize the kneecap. In cases where arthritis limits everyday activities, or pain continues while resting, your doctor may recommend knee surgery, including knee replacement.

Knee Surgery

Mako Technology

The Mako System features three dimensional pre-surgical planning. During surgery, it provides the surgeon with real-time visual, tactile and auditory feedback to facilitate optimal joint resurfacing and implant positioning. It is this optimal placement that can result in more natural knee motion following surgery.

The Mako System assists the surgeon in achieving natural knee kinematics and optimal results at a level of precision previously unattainable with conventional instrumentation.

  • Accurately plan implant size, orientation and alignment utilizing CT-derived 3-D modeling
  • Enabling the pre-resection capture of patient-specific kinematic tracking through full flexion and extension
  • Real-time intra-operative adjustments for correct knee kinematics and soft-tissue balance
  • Minimally invasive and bone sparing, with minimal tissue trauma for faster recovery 

Mako Partial Knee Resurfacing

Mako partial knee resurfacing is an innovative treatment option for adults living with early to mid-stage osteoarthritis (OA) that has not progressed to all three compartments of the knee. Mako technology allows for consistently reproducible precision in performing partial knee resurfacing. During the procedure, the diseased portion of the knee is resurfaced, sparing the patient’s healthy bone and surrounding tissue, for a more natural-feeling knee. An implant is then secured in the joint to allow the knee to move smoothly again. Mako Partial Knee can:

  • Facilitate ideal implant positioning to result in a more natural feeling knee following surgery
  • Result in a more rapid recovery and shorter hospital stay than traditional knee replacement surgery
  • Be performed on an outpatient basis
  • Promote a rapid relief from pain and return to daily activities

Mako for Total Knee Replacement

The Mako Total Knee application is a knee replacement treatment option designed to relieve the pain caused by joint degeneration due to osteoarthritis. Through CT-based 3D modeling of bone anatomy, surgeons can use the Mako System to create a personalized surgical plan and identify the implant size, orientation and alignment based on each patient’s unique anatomy. The Mako System also enables surgeons to virtually modify the surgical plan intra-operatively and assists the surgeon in executing bone resections, transforming the way total knee replacements are performed.

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